The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems can undoubtedly bring societal benefits, enhance economic growth, support innovation, and reframe global competitiveness among businesses and governments. At the same time, it is commonly acknowledged that certain characteristics of AI systems are concerning, especially regarding safety, security and fundamental rights protection. The latter has also been acknowledged by EU institutions (such as the European Parliament). The same threats have also been acknowledged at the US level (the White House, fact sheet, September 12, 2023).