CHAIR

LEGAL AND REGULATORY IMPLICATIONS
OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTICLES

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22/02/2023
A fierce debate rages in Brussels over which AI systems should be considered as “High Risk”, while the systems in Annex II of the EU AI Act have attracted less attention. Here is a guide (with infographics) on the classification of ALL “High Risk” systems in the AI Act, as well as the corresponding conformity assessment procedures.
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06/02/2023
Data is the fuel of AI systems. Anonymisation has been presented as a panacea to protect personal data while enabling AI innovation. However, the growing efficiency of re-identification attacks on anonymised data raises a series of legal questions. 
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27/01/2023
On November 23rd, 2022 an article by Le Parisien, a French Newspaper, revealed that the French Government had dropped its project to deploy facial recognition to support security arrangements at the 2024 Paris Olympics. In fact, the debate on the possible implementation of facial recognition systems during the Olympic Games is part of a broader debate which divides political leaders on whether AI-driven biometric systems should be used to monitor public places.
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11/01/2023
The use of facial recognition technologies for criminal investigation purposes has been under the spotlight for many years in France and in the European Union. In this article accepted for publication in the European Review of Digital Administration & Law, T. Christakis & A. Lodie discuss a major decision issued last year by the French Conseil d’Etat.
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10/01/2023
AI-Regulation Researchers propose a highly interesting comparative approach of the definition of different categories of “data”, including “sensitive” and “biometric” data, as found in more than 20 international instruments. Karine Bannelier and Anaïs Trotry decided to proceed to a comparative analysis of all relevant international instruments and to compile, in two Charts, the definitions appearing in these instruments. You can download the Charts and read their first findings in this article. 
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14/10/2022
On September 28th, 2022, the European Commission released two proposals, the aim of which is to regulate civil liability in relation to AI-enabled systems, drawing from the Commission’s White Paper1 considerations on the use of such systems: a revised version of the Defective Product Liability Directive (PLD)2 and a Directive that adapts non-contractual civil liability rules to Artificial Intelligence (AI Liability Directive)3. The combination of these proposals with that of April 21st, 2021, Laying Down Harmonized Rules On Artificial Intelligence (AI Act)4, will result in the national liability frameworks being adapted to the digital age, the circular economy and global value chains.

OUR FOCUS AREAS

AI GOVERNANCE & REGULATION

FACIAL RECOGNITION

VIRTUAL ASSISTANTS & CHATBOTS

SMART CITIES, SMART HOMES, IoTs

DATA MANIPULATION, AI AND DEMOCRACY

HEALTH HUMAN & AI

CONNECTED & AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

AI, NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

NEWS

20/09/2023
On September 7th, 2023, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) upheld the decision of the General Court according to which the public can partially access documentation on the EU’s emotion recognition project (iBorderCtrl) in which it discusses the general reliability, ethics and legality of such technology.
15/09/2023
The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems can undoubtedly bring societal benefits, enhance economic growth, support innovation, and reframe global competitiveness among businesses and governments. At the same time, it is commonly acknowledged that certain characteristics of AI systems are concerning, especially regarding safety, security and fundamental rights protection. The latter has also been acknowledged by EU institutions (such as the European Parliament). The same threats have also been acknowledged at the US level (the White House, fact sheet, September 12, 2023).
21/06/2023
The adoption of the negotiating position by the EP at the Stratsbourg’s plenary session of June 14th, 2023, was preceded the previous day by a debate on the report from the leading joint committee on the matter – the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE). According to the debates, it should be stressed that the principle desire of the EP concerning the AI Act is to make the European Union (EU) a leader as regards regulation and innovation in AI as well as a body that takes into consideration open letters published since Open AI first released its groundbreaking AI tool. The debate’s keynotes therefore revolved around three principle themes.
02/06/2023
On May 17th, 2023, the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) published its final report on the use of facial recognition technologies (FRTs) by Law Enforcement Authorities (LEAs). This report opposes mass surveillance, and, according to the EDPB, ‘the use of facial recognition by law enforcement agencies must be necessary, limited, and proportionate’.
21/05/2023
On May 16th, 2023, the French data control agency – Commission Nationale de l’Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL) – published an action plan aimed at ensuring respect for the privacy of people in relation to Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems and more specifically generative AI (e.g. Midjourney and ChatGPT from the company OpenAI). This action plan follows the 2017 CNIL’s first global approach on these new tools.  
30/04/2023
Between 21 and 23 April, the European Commission (Commission) held the closing session of the European citizens’ panels, to debate and propose recommendations on virtual worlds in the EU. As a result, a panel of 150 citizens has contributed to the provision of 23 recommendations on ‘fair and human-centric virtual worlds in the EU’.
08/04/2023
The European Consumer Organisation (BEUC) is calling ‘for EU and national authorities to launch an investigation into ChatGPT and similar chatbots’, following the filing of a complaint on March 30th, 2023, on the other side of the Atlantic by the Center for Artificial Intelligence and Digital Policy (CAIDP) in relation to ChatGPT-4.
28/03/2023
On March 27th, 2023, the European Union Agency for Law and Enforcement Cooperation (EUROPOL) released a report on the Impact of Large Language Models on Law Enforcement. Having considered the outcomes that resulted from a series of workshops organised by the Europol Innovation Lab on how criminals can abuse LLMs such as ChatGPT, as well as how it may assist investigators in their daily work, the report provided useful recommendations on enhancing law enforcement preparedness.

OUR EVENTS